What are the Differences Between Normal and Cancerous Cells?
There is a host of differences between the normal human cells and the cancerous cells, which makes them so dangerous and unpredictable. These differences are the major causes due to which one can identify the cancerous cells and prevent their invasion in the entire body.
One of the most important differences between the cancerous cells and normal cells is that the cancerous cells are less specific regarding their functions than the normal cells. On one hand, the normal cells have been allotted specific functions to perform for the proper functioning of our body; but, on the other hand, there are no such specifications for the cancerous cells. It is due to this reason that the cancerous cells keep on reproducing and propagating in our body, whereas the normal cells stop dividing after a certain point of time.
Apart from this, the cancerous cells also deactivate any sort of signal from the brain which instructs them to stop their reproduction. This phenomenon is termed as programmed cell death, and in the case of the cancerous cells, such a condition cannot be achieved due to the hindrance which these cells provide for the neuron signals.
Apart from this, these cancerous cells can also mold the normal cells into a servant of these dangerous cells. This implies that the cancerous cells are completely able to manipulate the healthy cells and make them work for the further growth of the tumors. In this case, the normal cells, blood vessels, and molecules which surround the cancerous cells provide these dangerous cells the required amount of nutrition and oxygen which it requires for its healthy development. Moreover, these healthy cells and blood vessels are also used by the cancerous cells to throw away any waste products secreted from these cancerous cells.
Another unique ability of the cancerous cells is that these cells are perfectly able to hide from the immune system of the body, which protects our metabolic system against the incoming viruses, infections, and other diseases. Although, the immune system is very efficient and powerful and drives away any kind of abnormal cells, yet, there are some specialized cancer cells which hide and creates havoc from within the body itself.
What are the Cancer-Causing Genes?
There are three crucial genes which are attacked by the cancerous cells or the genetic implications, namely the proto-onco genes, lump suppressor genes and the DNA repair genes. Altogether, these genes are termed as cancer 'drivers'.
The proto-onco genes are basically involved with the purpose of cell reproduction and segregation. However, when these proto-oncogenes start behaving abnormally or become more pro-active than usual, they start to create problems and ultimately take the form of cancer-initiating genes. These genes are responsible for the abnormal reproduction and unusual life span of the cancerous cells.
Tumor Suppressor Genes
The tumor suppressor genes are also responsible for causing cancers since these genes are directly related to the phenomena of the uncontrolled division of the cancerous cells.
DNA Repair Genes
The DNA repairing genes are responsible for the fixing of the damaged DNA cells. However, if any kind of abnormality arise with these kind of genes, they might become the bearer of various cancer-causing cells.